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Revisiting Ethnic Differences in In-Person Learning During 2021-2022

During the 2020-21 school year, Black and Hispanic students were less likely to attend school in-person than white students. Prior research indicated multiple factors helped explain this gap. In this study, we revise these observed racial gaps in in-person learning to examine whether the relationship between these gaps and explanatory factors observed earlier in the pandemic changed during the 2021-2022 school year. We find that, while in-person gaps decreased, Black respondents continued to be less likely to report in-person learning than white respondents. Political leanings and COVID-19 health risks, which helped explain observed gaps in 2020-2021, lose explanatory power. But the availability of learning options remains an important factor in helping explain the observed in-person gaps. In this respect, our results suggest the presence of a mismatch between the preferences that Black families have and what they are being offered.

COVID-19, Racial Gaps, Schooling Modality
Education level
Document Object Identifier (DOI)

EdWorkingPaper suggested citation:

Camp, Andrew, Alison H. Johnson, and Gema Zamarro. (). Revisiting Ethnic Differences in In-Person Learning During 2021-2022 . (EdWorkingPaper: 23-728). Retrieved from Annenberg Institute at Brown University:

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